Hello everyone! This is Ayush, and this time I am here with something worthy for the students of class 9. I am here with the “Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9″. It is for SA2 and I hope that it would be helpful for you guys!

Electoral Politics

Q.Why do we need elections?

A- India is a democratic country and in democracy the opinions of everyone is respected. Here are the following points which will explain that why do we need elections:-

  • Due to the huge population of India, everybody cannot sit at the same place at the same moment and take decisions.
  • Election is the only way through which such a huge population can indirectly take decisions.
  • Election gives people the opportunity to decide that who should rule them.
  • Election gives people the opportunity to decide that who should make laws for them.
  • Election creates a healthy environment in a democratic country as it gives everyone equal rights to vote or contest in elections.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. How the representatives are elected by the people?

A – India has a representative form of elections. It is basically performed at two main levels which we have to study, (i) Lok Sabha (ii) Vidhan Sabha

In India, there are various regions divided for the elections. Each region has one representative which represents their region in Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha. These regions are politically called as ‘Constituency’. These constituencies are commonly known as ‘seat’ as one constituency equals to one seat in the House. Lok Sabha has 543 seats.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. Is electoral competition good for the society?

A – There can be different views on this. It has some positive effects. Following reasons will help you understand it:-

  • It gives the voters a good environment to judge the candidates.
  • It highlights the merits and demerits of every candidate.
  • It makes people superior as they are decision makers.
  • It forces the winning candidate to give good governance otherwise he/she will be removed from the post in the next elections.

It also has many bad effects. Following reasons will help you understand it:-

  • Sometimes candidates cross the limits for winning the election.
  • Candidates start to threat or lure the voters in their favour.
  • A huge amount of money is spent on it.

In the whole, I think that it has some bad as well as some effects. But it is necessary for a better government.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. What makes elections democratic?

A – Following points make elections democratic:-

  • Everyone should be able to vote and the value of each vote should be the same.
  • There should be some real choice for the people to choose their representatives.
  • Election should be conducted in a smooth way without any kind of malpractices.
  • Government should be formed by the party who has won the elections.
  • Elections should happen at a regular interval of time.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. Explain the powers of Election Commission in five points.

A – Following points are the powers of election commission:-

  • Election Commission is an independent body. Free from the influence of government.
  • Election Commission looks after each and every movement before, during and after elections.
  • Election commission has power to punish any candidate as per the rules of code of conduct.
  • Each and every government servants work under EC during elections.
  • Every party is bound to accept the orders of EC. Even the party which is in government has to accept its orders.

Q. What do you mean by reserved constituencies?

A – There are many sections in the society who are still deprived. They could have been easily suppressed by the upper sections. But the constitution makers had this in their minds. To uplift their voice in the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha for their communities, constitution makers have reserved some constituencies for these sections. These kinds of constituencies are known as reserved constituencies.

Q. What do you mean by code of conduct?

A – There is a set of rules which are made by the all party agreement. These rules are being followed in every election. This set of rules is called code of conduct.

 

Working of Institutions

Q.Who is the major decision maker in our country India?

A – There is no any particular decision maker in India. All the decision makers are somehow interlinked with each other. The major ones are following:-

  • Parliament
  • Prime Minister along with the Cabinet Ministers
  • President
  • Supreme Court and High Courts

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q.What was Mandal Commission?

A – Mandal Commission was a commission appointed in 1979 to submit a report which regarding the ‘Socially and Economically Backward Classes (SEBC)’. They submitted a report in 1980 which consisted all the information and they gave a suggestion to the government that there should be 27% reservation for SEBC in all the central jobs. The debate continued for many years regarding the implementation of this law. And finally in 1989, this law came into enforcement.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. Why do we need Parliament?

A – Following are the needs of the Parliament:-

  • Parliament makes laws for the country.
  • Parliament has some access over the ruling government.
  • Parliament deals with all the money related matters.
  • Parliament is the highest authorised stage for any kind of debate.

Q. How Lok Sabha is superior to the Rajya Sabha?

A – Lok Sabha is superior to the Rajya Sabha is following ways:-

  • Any bill comes into force when it passed from both houses. In case of any conflict between the two houses, a joint session is called. Since the number of members is far more in Lok Sabha than the Rajya Sabha, so the decision taken in Lok Sabha is more likely to prevail.
  • Lok Sabha has more power in terms of money bill than the Rajya Sabha.
  • Lok Sabha has some direct control over the government as the Cabinet Ministers along with PM are selected from Lok Sabha.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. Write powers and functions of Prime Minister in five points.

A – Here are the 5 points that will explain the powers and the functions of Prime Minister:-

  • PM is the head of the cabinet.
  • He takes all the major decisions.
  • He appoints the ministers of the cabinet.
  • He heads the cabinet meetings.
  • In case of any dispute among the different ministries, his decision is the final decision.

Q.Write powers and functions of President in five points.

A – Following are the functions and powers of President:-

  • She is the head of the state.
  • Although she exercises all the powers but it is only on paper. All the decisions which are taken by her name are not actually taken by her. She has to consult PM for all the major decisions.
  • She is responsible for choosing the PM after the elections.
  • She has the power to retain anyone’s sentence to death.
  • She can impose Presidential Rule in the state whose government is not performing according to the constitution.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. How can you say that Indian Judiciary is independent as well as integrated?

A – Yes Indian Judiciary is Independent as well as integrated because Indian Judiciary is free from any influence from the Judiciary and Executive. And Supreme Court is the head of the Indian Judiciary and every court is bound to accept it. Thus it is integrated.

 

Democratic Rights

Q.What do you mean by rights?

A – Rights are the claims that are accepted by the society and are enforced by the law.

Q. List the Fundamental Rights of Indian Constitution.

A – Following are the Fundamental Rights of Indian Constitution:-

  • Right to equality
  • Right to Freedom
  • Right to freedom of religion
  • Right against exploitation
  • Cultural and Educational rights
  • Right to constitutional remedies

Q. Enlist the main rights which come under the right to freedom.

A – Following are the main rights which come under the right to freedom:-

  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom to move throughout the country.
  • Freedom to settle in any part of the country.
  • Freedom to form any association in a peaceful manner.
  • Freedom to protest

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

Q. What is National Human Rights Commission?

A – It is a commission set up by the law in 1993 which is responsible to check that no one’s right is violated. It operates at the national level. It is free from anyone’s influence and it has helped a lot of people till date.

(Notes of Democratic Politics of class 9)

That is all for this blog. I will catch you guys in my next blog! Until then keep chilling and best of luck for your examinations.