Short notes on Socialism in Europe.

Liberals

  • They believed that all religions should be respected.
  • They believed in representative parliamentary form of government.
  • They wanted to safeguard the rights of commons.
  • Although they were not democrats.
  • They believed that only men should be given right to vote.

Radicals

  • They wanted a nation which was based on the majority of the population.
  • They supported women’s suffragette movement.
  • They opposed the concentration of private property in the hands of few.

Conservatives

  • They generally opposed the idea of change.
  • They opposed the radicals and liberals.
  • After French revolution they opened their mind slightly, they agreed for change but a gradual one.

Industrial society and Social change.

Q. What was the condition of workers in Europe during the time of Industrialization?

Ans.

The condition of workers in Europe during the time of Industrialization is following:-

  • Industrialization brought men, women and even children to factories.
  • Long hours of work.
  • Poor wages.
  • Unemployment was common.
  • Problems of housing and sanitation.

Q. Why liberals and radicals did not oppose private property holders?

Ans.

Almost all industries were private ones. Most of those industries came under liberals and radicals. They had good trade by these industries so they en encouraged it.

The coming of socialism in Europe

Q. Why socialism became popular in Europe?

Ans.

During the time of industrialization many of the property were in the hands of few. Many people believed that this was the main reason behind the conditions of poor. So to overcome this problem they thought of a solution which was the control of property by whole society. Socialism included these features. Thus socialism became popular in Europe.

Q. Describe different visions of socialism.

Ans.

Robert Owen(1771-1858)

He proposed to build a cooperative society in which all system will run with cooperations of everyone.

Other socialists (including Louis Blanc)- They thought that this could not be possible without the cooperation of government. They demanded that governments should encourage cooperatives.

Karl Marx(1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels(1820-1895)

They said that the society was capitalist and the profit of capitalists were produced by the workers. To free themselves(workers) from the capitalists they have to construct a radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This type of society is known as communist society.